Scales Repository

Measurement Scales for Marketing Researchers

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Maybe you can find it in my personal scales repository! Chances are good if you are interested in branding and international marketing.

The scale repository can also be used as a source of inspiration: Are you missing an important brand-related control variable? Is there a consumer disposition that might be related to the construct you investigate? Can you enhance your conceptual model through the addition of category-related moderators?

Please feel free to actively contribute to the repository by suggesting additions via the contact form below. Your contribution is much appreciated.

What Is a Good Measure?

Measurement refers to the act of assigning numbers or symbols to characteristics of things according to specific rules. Measurement scales represent the instruments we use for this purpose. Often, a variety of different scales exist that essentially measure the same “thing.” Yet, not every scale is equally suitable for the task. Which raises the question: What’s a “good” measure?


A good scale measures what you intend to measure, and nothing else.


A good scale measures a construct in a precise and consistent manner.


A good scale can be applied across a broad range of contexts.


A good scale is as short as possible and as long as necessary.

Easy to administer

A good scale is non-ambiguous and easy to understand.

Brand-related scales

Brand Familiarity

1. This brand is very familiar/unfamiliar to me.
2. Everybody/nobody here has heard of this brand.
3. I’m not at all/very knowledgeable about this brand.
4. I have never seen/have seen many advertisements for it in (country) magazines, radio, or TV.

Source: Steenkamp, Batra, and Alden (2003), JIBS (based on Oliver and Bearden [1985], JBR)

Brand Quality

1. This is a very well-made brand.
2. This brand shows a very high level of overall quality.
3. This brand has poor workmanship. (reversed)
4. This brand has consistent quality.

Source: Zhou, Yang, and Hui (2010), JAMS (based on Sweeney and Soutar [2001], JR)

Brand Attitude

1. Bad/good
2. Unfavorable/favorable
3. Negative/positive

Source: Petrova and Cialdini (2005), JCR

Brand Equity

1. It makes sense to buy (brand) instead of any other brand, even if they are the same.
2. Even if another brand has the same features as (brand), I would prefer to buy (brand).
3. If there is another brand as good as (brand), I prefer to buy (brand).
4. If another brand is not different from (brand) in any way, it seems smarter to purchase (brand).

Source: Yoo and Donthu (2001), JBR

Brand Trust

1. I trust this brand.
2. I rely on this brand.
3. This is an honest brand.
4. This brand is safe.

Source: Chaudhuri and Holbrook (2001), JM

Brand Credibility

1. This brand delivers what it promises.
2. This brand´s product claims are believable.
3. Over time, my experiences with this brand have led me to expect it to keep its promises, no more and no less.
4. This brand is committed to delivering on its claims, no more and no less
5. This brand has a name you can trust.
6. This brand has the ability to deliver what it promises.

Source: Erdem, Swait, and Valenzuela (2006), JM

Brand Affect

1. I feel good when I use this brand.
2. This brand makes me happy.
3. This brand gives me pleasure.

Source: Chaudhuri and Holbrook (2001), JM

Brand Attachment

To what extent…

1. is (brand) part of you and who you are?
2. do you feel personally connected to (brand)?
3. are your thoughts and feelings toward (brand) often automatic, coming to mind seemingly on their own?
4. do your thoughts and feelings toward (brand) come to your mind naturally and instantly?

Source: Park et al. 2010, JM

Brand Commitment

1. I am very fond of (brand).
2. I am very committed to (brand).
3. I consider myself to be very loyal to (brand).

Source: Stokburger-Sauer, Ratneshwar, and Sen (2012), IJRM

Self-Brand Connection

1. (Brand) reflects who I am.
2. I can identify with (brand).
3. I feel personal connection to (brand).
4. I (can) use (brand) to communicate who I am to other people.
5. I think (brand) (could) help(s) me become the type of person I want to be.
6. I consider (brand) to be “me” (it reflects who I consider myself to be or the way that I want to present myself to others)
7. (Brand) suits me well.

Source: Escalas and Bettman (2003), JR

Brand Prestige

1. (Brand) is very prestigious.
2. (Brand) is one of the best brands of (category).
3. (Brand) is a first-class, high-quality brand.

Source: Stokburger-Sauer, Ratneshwar, and Sen (2012), IJRM

Brand Social Signaling Value

1. This brand would improve the way I am perceived.
2. This brand would make a good impression on other people.
3. This brand would help me feel trendy/up-to-date.
4. I think it is particularly appropriate to use this brand in social contexts.

Source: Zhou, Yang, and Hui (2010), JAMS (based on Sweeney and Soutar [2001], JR)

Brand Leadership

1. This is the most innovative brand in the market.
2. This is the leading brand in the market.
3. This brand is growing in popularity.
4. This is the most popular brand in the market.

Source: Zhou, Yang, and Hui (2010), JAMS (based on Aaker [1996] and Cheng, Chen, Lin, and Wang [2007], JPBM)

Brand Authenticity


1. I think (brand) is consistent over time.
2. I think (brand) stays true to itself.
3. (Brand) offers continuity.
4. (Brand) has a clear concept that it pursues.


1. (Brand) is different from all other brands.
2. (Brand) stands out from other brands.
3. I think (brand) is unique.
4. (Brand) clearly distinguishes itself from other brands.


1. My experience of (brand) has shown me that it keeps its promises.
2. (Brand) delivers what it promises.
3. (Brand)’s promises are credible.
4. (Brand) makes reliable promises.


1. (Brand) does not seem artificial.
2. (Brand) makes a genuine impression.
3. (Brand) gives the impression of being natural.

Source: Bruhn, Schoenmüller, Schäfer, and Heinrich (2012), ACR

Brand Competence

I think most people in (country) consider (brand)…

1. a competent brand.
2. a capable brand.
3. an intelligent brand.
4. an efficient brand.

Source: Davvetas and Halkias (2018), IMR (adapted from Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, and Xu [2002], JPSP)

Brand Warmth

I think most people in  (country) consider (brand)…

1. a warm brand.
2. a friendly brand.
3. a kind brand.
4. a good-natured brand.

Source: Davvetas and Halkias (2018), IMR (adapted from Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, and Xu [2002], JPSP)

Brand Heritage

1. This brand has a long history.
2. This brand has been around for a long time.
3. My parents used this brand.

Source: Lehmann, Keller, and Farley (2008), JIM

Brand Identity Expressiveness

1. This brand connects with the part of me that really makes me tick.
2. Purchasing this brand would help me express my identity.
3. This brand says a lot about the kind of person I would like to be.
4. Using this brand lets me be a part of a shared community of like-minded consumers.

Source: Xie, Batra, and Peng (2015), JIM

Perceived Brand Foreignness

1. I consider this brand to be a (country) brand./ I consider this brand to be a foreign brand.
2. I don’t think consumers overseas buy this brand./I do think consumers overseas buy this brand.
3. This brand is sold only in (country)./This brand is sold all over the world.

Source: Batra et al. (2000), JCP

Perceived Brand Globalness

1. To me, this is a global brand./To me, this is a local brand.
2. I don’t think consumers overseas buy this brand./I do think consumers overseas buy this brand.
3. This brand is sold only in (country)./This brand is sold all over the world.

Source: Steenkamp, Batra, and Alden (2003), JIBS

Perceived Brand Localness

1. I associate this brand with things that are (country)./I do not associate this brand with things that are (country).
2. To me, this brand represents what (country) is all about./to me this brand does not represent what (country) is all about.
3. To me, this brand is a very good symbol of (country)./To me, this brand is not a very good symbol of (country).

Source: Steenkamp, Batra, and Alden (2003), JIBS

Brand Personality


1. Down-to-earth
2. Family-oriented
3. Small-town
4. Honest
5. Sincere
6. Real
7. Wholesome
8. Original
9. Cheerful
10. Sentimental
11. Friendly


1. Daring
2. Trendy
3. Exciting
4. Spirited
5. Cool
6. Young
7. Imaginative
8. Unique
9. Up-to-date
10. Independent
11. Contemporary


1. Reliable
2. Hard-working
3. Secure
4. Intelligent
5. Technical
6. Corporate
7. Successful
8. Leader
9. Confident


1. Upper class
2. Glamorous
3. Good-looking
4. Charming
5. Feminine
6. Smooth


1. Outdoorsy
2. Masculine
3. Western
4. Tough
5. Rugged

Source: Aaker (1997), JMR

Perceived Brand Ethicality

1. (Brand) is a socially responsible brand.
2. (Brand) seems to make an effort to create new jobs.
3. (Brand) seems to be environmentally responsible.
4. (Brand) appears to support good causes.
5. (Brand) contributes to society.
6. (Brand) is more beneficial for the welfare of society than other brands.

Source: Iglesias, Markovic, Singh, and Sierra (2019), JBE

Consumer-related scales

Consumer Ethnocentrism

1. Purchasing foreign-made products in un-(nationality).
2. (Countrymen) should not buy foreign products, because this hurts (home country’s) business and causes unemployment.
3. A real (country person) should always buy (home country)-made products.
4. It is not right to purchase foreign-made products.

Source: Batra et al. (2000), JCP

Consumer Cosmopolitanism

1. I like to observe people of other cultures, to see what I can learn from them.
2. I am interested in learning more about people who live in other countries.
3. I enjoy exchanging ideas with people from other cultures and countries.
4. I like to learn about other ways of life.
5. I enjoy being with people from other countries to learn about their unique views and approaches.

Source: Cleveland, Laroche, Takahashi, and Erdoğan (2014), JBR

Global Identity

1. My heart mostly belongs to the whole world.
2. I believe people should be made more aware of how connected we are to the rest of the world.
3. I identify that I am a global citizen.
4. I care about knowing global events.

Source: Tu, Khare, and Zhang (2012), IJRM

Local Identity

1. My heart mostly belongs to my local community.
2. I respect my local traditions.
3. I identify that I am a local citizen.
4. I care about knowing local events.

Source: Tu, Khare, and Zhang (2012), IJRM

Consumer Innovativeness

1. When I see a product somewhat different from the usual, I check it out.
2. I am often among the first people to try a new product.
3. I like to try new and different things.

Source: Ailawadi, Neslin, and Gedenk (2001), JM

Consumer Localism

1. News from my home country interest me a lot.
2. I pay much attention to local news.
3. I appreciate the importance of following traditions.
4. I like having traditional dishes from my home country.
5. I have close bonds to the people in my home country.
6. I like being in my home country.

Source: Riefler, Diamantopoulos, and Siguaw (2012), JIBS

Consumer World-Mindedness

1. Even when consuming a particular foreign product does not fit the norms and values of my culture, I still try it.
2. Even if I do not know how well a specific foreign brand will perform beforehand, I try it.
3. When grasshopper is promoted as a delicacy in a Mexican restaurant, I like to try it.
4. When a foreign friend recommends a product from his/her own culture that is unknown to me, I am prepared to try it without any prejudice.
5. If I move to the U.S. and have to buy a car, then it is very likely that I would switch to a U.S. brand.
6. Even though I (for example) would like French wine very much, I like to drink wines from other traditional wine countries like Spain, Italy as well.
7. Although I (might) have a favorite drink, when and for the time that I visit another country I will drink the local alternative.
8. Although I prefer a certain type of food, when and for the time I am abroad I adopt the local cuisine.

Source: Nijssen and Douglas (2011), JIM

Cultural Orientation (Individualism)

Horizontal Individualism

1. I often do “my own thing.”
2. One should live one’s life independently of others.
3. I like my privacy.
4. I prefer to be direct and forthright when discussing with people.
5. I am a unique individual.
6. What happens to me is my own doing.
7. When I succeed, it is usually because of my own abilities.
8. I enjoy being unique and different from others in many ways.

Vertical Individualism

1. It annoys me when other people perform better than I do.
2. Competition is the law of nature.
3. When another person does better than I do, I get tense and aroused.
4. Without competition, it is not possible to have a good society.
5. Winning is everything.
6. It is important that I do my job better than others.
7. I enjoy working in situations involving competition with others.
8. Some people emphasize winning: I’m not one of them. (reversed)

Source: Singelis, Triandis, Bhawuk, and Gelfand (1995), CCR

Cultural Orientation (Collectivism)

Horizontal Collectivism

1. The well-being of my coworkers is important to me.
2. If a coworker gets a prize, I would feel proud.
3. If a relative were in financial difficulty, I would help within my means.
4. It is important to maintain harmony within my group.
5. I like sharing little things with my neighbors.
6. I feel good when I cooperate with others.
7. My happiness depends very much on the happiness of those around me.
8. To me, pleasure is spending time with others.

Vertical Collectivism

1. I would sacrifice an activity that I enjoy very much if my family did not approve of it.
2. I would do what would please my family even I detested that activity.
3. Before taking a major trip, I consult with most members of my family and many friends.
4. I usually sacrifice my self-interest for the benefit of my group.
5. Children should be taught to place duty before pleasure.
6. I hate to disagree with others in my group.
7. We should keep our aging parents with us at home.
8. Children should feel honored if their parents receive a distinguished award.

Source: Singelis, Triandis, Bhawuk, and Gelfand (1995), CCR

Self-Construal (Interdependent)

1. I have respect for the authority figures with whom I interact.
2. It is important to me to maintain harmony within my group.
3. My happiness depends on the happiness of those around me.
4. I would offer my seat in a bus to my professor.
5. I respect people who are modest about themselves.
6. I will sacrifice my self-interest for the benefit of the group I am in.
7. I often have the feeling that my relationships with others are more important than my own accomplishments.
8. I should take into consideration my parents’ advice when making education/career plans.
9. It is important for me to respect decisions made by the group.
10. I will stay in a group if they need me, even when I’m not happy with the group.
11. If my brother or sister fails, I feel responsible.
12. Even when I strongly disagree with group members, I avoid an argument.

Source: Singelis (1994), PSPB

Self-Construal (Independent)

1. I’d rather say “no” directly than risk being misunderstood.
2. Speaking up during class is not a problem for me.
3. Having a lively imagination is important to me.
4. I am comfortable being singled out for praise or rewards.
5. I am the same person at home than I am at school.
6. Being able to take care of myself is a primary concern for me.
7. I act the same way no matter who I am with.
8. I feel comfortable using someone’s first name soon after I meet them, even when they are much older than I am.
9. I prefer to be direct and forthright when dealing with people I’ve just met.
10. I enjoy being unique and different from others in many respects.
11. My personal identity, independent of others, is important to me.
12. I value being in good health above everything.

Source: Singelis (1994), PSPB

Cultural Sensitivity

1. I enjoy participating in cultural events of people whose cultures differ from (home country) culture.
2. I believe that the influence of foreign cultures doesn’t threaten (home country) culture.
3. In my opinion, people coming from different cultures should not isolate themselves from each other.
4. In my opinion, people in this world are basically the same.
5. I enjoy studying other cultures that differ from my own culture.

Source: Nguyen, Nguyen, and Barrett (2008), JCB (based on Loo and Shiomi [1999], JSBP)

Globalization Attitude

In my opinion, increased economic globalization…

1. leads to unfair/unequal distribution of income.
2. encourages a maximum of personal freedom and choice
3. encourages unethical (cut-throat) business behavior.
4. leads to quality and technical advances.
5.  leads to insufficient provision of important public services.
6. provides opportunities and incentives for success.
7. encourages greed and materialism.
8. allows equal access to economic opportunities.
9. leads to inflation.
10. raises the living standard for the average person.
11. leads to monopolies.
12. leads to efficient allocation of resources.
13. encourages the abuse of natural resources.
14. leads to excessive unemployment risks for workers.
15. leads to excessive risk of business failure.
16. requires much government control to be efficient.
17. allows unfair foreign competition.
18. maximizes consumer choice for products and services.
19. provides consumers the goods and services they want.
20. provides employment opportunities for all who desire.

Source: Spears, Parker, and McDonald (2004), JGB

Global Connectedness

1. I have a strong attachment to the global world.
2. I feel connected to the global world.
3. I think of myself as a global citizen.
4. It is important to me to feel a part of the global world.
5. Thinking about my identity, I view myself as a global citizen.
6. Feeling like a citizen of the world is important to me.
7. I would describe myself as a global citizen.

Source: Strizhakova and Coulter (2013), IJRM

Global Consumption Orientation


A. [Global] It is important for me to have a lifestyle that I think is similar to the lifestyle of consumers in many countries around the world rather than one that is more unique to or traditional in (country).
B. [Hybrid] I try to blend a lifestyle that is considered unique to or traditional in (country) with one that I think is similar to the lifestyle of consumers in many countries around the world.
C. [Local] It is more important for me to have a lifestyle that is unique to or traditional in (country) rather than one that I think is similar to the lifestyle of consumers in many countries around the world.
D. [Disinterest] To be honest, I do not find the typical lifestyle in (country) or the lifestyles of consumers in other countries very interesting.


A. [Global] I enjoy entertainment that I think is popular in many countries around the world more than traditional forms of entertainment that are popular in my own country.
B. [Hybrid] While I like entertainment that I think is popular in many countries around the world, I also enjoy traditional forms of entertainment that are popular in my own country.
C. [Local] Entertainment that is traditional in my own country is more enjoyable to me than entertainment that I think is popular in many countries around the world.
D. [Disinterest] To be honest, most entertainment, whether from my own traditional culture or from other countries, is boring to me.


A. [Global] I prefer to have home furnishings that I think are popular in many countries around the world rather than furnishings that are considered traditional in my own country.
B. [Hybrid] I do not mind mixing home furnishings that are traditional in my country with those that I think are popular in many countries around the world.
C. [Local] I like to furnish my home with traditional items from my culture more than with furnishings that I think are popular in many countries around the world.
D. [Disinterest] I am not sure that I like my country’s traditional furnishings or furnishings that I think are popular in many countries around the world.


A. [Global] I prefer to wear clothing that I think is popular in many countries around the world rather than clothing traditionally worn in my own country.
B. [Hybrid] It is not difficult for me to alternate or mix clothing choices so that I wear clothing that is traditionally popular in my own country as well as clothing that I think is popular in many countries around the world.
C. [Local] I would rather wear clothing that is traditionally popular in my own country than clothing that I think is popular with consumers in many countries around the world.
D. [Disinterest] It doesn’t matter whether you’re talking about traditional clothing from my country or clothing that is preferred by consumers in other countries, I am not interested in clothing.

Source: Alden, Steenkamp, and Batra (2006), IJRM


1. I admire people who own expensive homes, cars, and clothes.
2. Some of the most important achievements in life include acquiring material possessions.
3. I like to own things that impress people.
4. The things I own say a lot about how well I’m doing in life.

Source: Alden, Steenkamp, and Batra (2006), IJRM (based on Richins and Dawson [1992], JCR)

Susceptibility to Normative Influence

1. If I want to be like someone, I often try to buy the same brands they buy.
2. When buying products, I generally purchase those brands that I think my friends and family will approve.
3. I achieve a sense of belonging by purchasing the same product and brands that friends or family purchase.

Source: Alden, Steenkamp, and Batra (2006), IJRM (based on Bearden, Netemeyer, and Teel [1989], JCR)

Consumer Authenticity Seeking

Personal authenticity seeking

1. I like products that reflect important values I care about.
2. I prefer products and experiences that are in line with my real self.
3. I appreciate products and experiences that show me what is really important in life.
4. Being true to oneself is important when making purchases.

True authenticity seeking

1. I prefer original products to copies or imitations.
2. I make an effort to use original and genuine products whenever possible.
3. I do not like to purchase imitations.
4. If I buy a product, it is important that I buy the original version.

Iconic authenticity seeking

1. I prefer products that are close to the original products.
2. As long as the product resembles the original product, I am satisfied.
3. For me, experiences are authentic as long as they resemble the original one.

Source: Bartsch, Zeugner-Roth, and Katsikeas (2022), JAMS

Need for Uniqueness

Creative choice:

1. I often combine possessions in such a way that I create a personal image that cannot be duplicated.
2. I often try to find a more interesting version of run-of-the-mill products because I enjoy being original.
3. I actively seek to develop my personal uniqueness by buying special products or brands.
4. Having an eye for products that are interesting and unusual assists me in establishing a distinctive image.

Unpopular choice:

1. When it comes to the products I buy and the situations in which I use them, I have broken customs and rules.
2. I have often violated the understood rules of my social group regarding what to buy or own.
3. I have often gone against the understood rules of my social group regarding when and how certain products are properly used.
4. I enjoy challenging the prevailing taste of people I know by buying something they would not seem to accept.

Avoidance of similarity:

1. When a product I won becomes popular among the general population, I begin to use it less.
2. I often try to avoid products or brands that I know are bought by the general population.
3. As a rule, I dislike products or brands that are customarily bought by everyone.
4. The more commonplace a product or brand is among the general population, the less interested I am in buying it.

Unique consumption behavior:

1. I have decorative walls in my house like brick stones, plaster walls, etc.
2. I have a wet bar in my kitchen.
3. I have a tattoo on my body.
4. I own a pure-bred cat, dog, or horse.
5. I own a unique collection (knives, stamps, coins, etc.)

Source: Ruvio, Shoham, and Brencic (2008), IMR (based on  Tian, Bearden, and Hunter [2001], JCR)

Nostalgia Proneness

1. They don’t make ’em like they used to.
2. Things used to be better in the good old days.
3. Products are getting shoddier and shoddier.
4. Technological change will ensure a brighter future. (reversed)
5. History involves a steady improvement in human welfare. (reversed)
6. We are experiencing a decline in the quality of life.
7. Steady growth in GNP has brought increased human happiness. (reversed)
8. Modern business constantly builds a better tomorrow. (reversed)

Source: Holbrook and Schindler (2004), JMR

Risk Aversion

1. I tend to avoid talking to strangers.
2. I prefer a routine way of life to an unpredictable one full of change.
3. I would not describe myself as a risk-taker.
4. I do not like taking too many chances to avoid making a mistake.
5. I am very cautious about how I spend my money.
6. I am seldom the first person to try anything new.

Source: Sharma (2010), JAMS

Value Consciousness

1. I am very concerned about low prices, but I am equally concerned about product quality.
2. When shopping, I compare the prices of different brands to be sure I get the best value for my money.
3. When purchasing a product, I always try to maximize the quality I get for the money I spend.
4. When I buy products, I like to be sure that I am getting my money’s worth.

Source: Sharma (2011), JIBS (based on Lichtenstein, Netemeyer, and Burton [1990], JM)

Price Consciousness

1. I usually buy priced products when they are on sale.
2. I buy the lowest priced product that will suit my needs.
3. When it comes to choosing a product for me, I rely heavily on price.
4. Price is the most important factor when I am choosing a brand.

Source: Koschate-Fischer, Diamantopoulos, and Oldenkotte (2012), JIM (based on Lichtenstein, Block, and Black [1988], JCR)

Variety-Seeking Tendency

1. I like to try different things.
2. I like a great deal of variety.
3. I like new and different styles.

Source: Donthu and Gilliland (1996), JAR

Price-Quality Schema

1. Generally speaking, the higher the price of a product, the higher the quality.
2. The old saying “you get what you paid for” is generally true.
3. The price of a product is a good indicator of its quality.
4. You always have to pay a bit more for the best.

Source: Lichtenstein, Ridgway, and Netemeyer (1993), JMR

Category-related scales

Category Involvement

1. In general, I have a strong interest in this product category.
2. This product category is very important to me.
3. This product category matters to me a lot.

Source: Flynn, Goldsmith, and Eastman (1996), JAMS (based on Beatty and Talpade [1994], JCR)

Perceived Category Risk

1. It is (is not) a big deal if I make a mistake in choosing a (category).
2. A poor choice of (category) would (not) be upsetting.

Source: Batra et al. 2001, JCP

Quality Variation in Category

1. All brands of (category) are basically the same quality.
2. I don’t think that there are any significant differences among different brands of (category) in terms of quality.
3. (Category) brands do not vary a lot in terms of quality.
4. There are only minor variations among brands of (category) in terms of quality.

Source: Batra and Sinha (2000), JR

Brand Relevance in Category

1. When I purchase a product in the given category, the brand plays – compared to other things – an important role.
2. When purchasing, I focus mainly on the brand.
3. To me, it is important to purchase a brand name product.
4. The brand plays a significant role as to how satisfied I am with the product.

Source: Fischer, Völckner, and Sattler (2010), JMR

Risk Reduction

1. I purchase mainly brand name products because that reduces the risk of aggravation later.
2. I purchase brand name products because I know that I get good quality.
3. I choose brand name products to avoid disappointments.
4. I purchase brand name products because I know that the performance promised is worth its money.

Source: Fischer, Völckner, and Sattler (2010), JMR

Hedonic Consumption Motivation

1. Not fun/fun
2. Dull/exciting
3. Not delightful/delightful
4. Not thrilling/thrilling
5. Unenjoyable/enjoyable

Source: Voss, Spangenberg, and Grohmann (2003), JMR

Utilitarian Consumption Motivation

1. Effective/ineffective
2. Helpful/unhelpful
3. Functional/not functional
4. Necessary/unnecessary
5. Practical/impractical

Source: Voss, Spangenberg, and Grohmann (2003), JMR

Social Demonstrance

1. To me, the brand is indeed important because I believe that other people judge me on the basis of it.
2. I purchase particular brands because I know that other people notice them.
3. I purchase particular brands because I have much in common with other buyers of that brand.
4. I pay attention to the brand because its buyers are just like me.

Source: Fischer, Völckner, and Sattler (2010), JMR

Visibility of Consumption

1. When used, (product) is not visible/visible to other people.
2. (Product) is predominantly used in private/in public.
3. I never/always use this product in settings where it is visible to others.

Source: Davvetas and Diamantopoulos (2016), JIM

Perceived Tangibility

1. I have a very clear picture of this item.
2. The image comes to my mind right away.
3. This is not the sort of item that is easy to picture.
4. This item is very tangible.
5. This is a difficult item to think about.

Source: McDougall and Snetsinger (1990), JSM

Cultural Groundedness

1. Traditions play an important role for products of this kind.

Source: Mandler, Bartsch, and Hand (2021), JIBS

Country-related scales

Country Image (Macro)

1. Level of technological research
2. High standard of living
3. High labour costs
4. Welfare system
5. High level of industrialization
6. Civilian non-military government
7. Highly developed economy
8. Free-market system
9. Democratic

Source: Pappu, Quester, and Cooksey (2007), JIBS (adapted from Martin and Eroglu [1993], JBR)

Country Image (Micro)

1. Technically advanced
2. Innovative
3. Pride in ownership products from this country
4. Reliable
5. Expensive
6. High status
7. Excellent finish
8. Dependable
9. Up-market

Source: Pappu, Quester, and Cooksey (2007), JIBS (adapted from Nagashima [1970, 1977], JM)

Country-Product Image

Products made in (country)…

1. are carefully produced and have fine workmanship.
2. are generally of a lower quality than similar products available from other countries.
3. show a very high degree of technological advancement.
4. usually show a clever use of color and design.
5. are usually quite reliable and seem to last the desired length of time.
6. are usually a good value for the money.

Source: Klein, Ettenson, and Morris (1998), JM

Country Competence

(Country) is…

1. competent
2. effective
3. efficient
4. skilled
5. capable

Source: Maher and Carter (2011), IMR (adapted from Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, and Xu [2002], JPSP)

Country Warmth

(Country) is…

1. friendly
2. warm
3. amicable
4. good
5. sympathetic

Source: Maher and Carter (2011), IMR (adapted from Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, and Xu [2002], JPSP)

Consumer Animosity


1. I dislike the (foreign countrymen).

War animosity: 

2. I feel angry toward the (foreign countrymen).
3. I will never forgive (country) for (significant war event).
4. (Country) should pay for what it did to (place) during the occupation.

Economic animosity:

5. (Country) is not a reliable trading partner.
6. (Country) wants to gain economic power over (home country).
7. (Country) is taking advantage of (home country).
8. (Country) has too much economic influence in (home country).
9. The (country) are doing business unfairly with (home country).

Source: Klein, Ettenson, and Morris (1998), JM

Country Familiarity

1. I know the country very well.

Source: Herz and Diamantopoulos (2013), JAMS

Consumer Affinity


1. Pleasant feeling
2. Like
3. Feelings of sympathy


4. Captivated
5. Feeling attached
6. Love
7. Inspired

Source: Oberecker and Diamantopoulos (2011), JIM


1. I consider myself to be (nationality).
2. I would like to be known as “(countryman)”.
3. I feel very attached to all aspects of the (country)’s culture.

Source: Laroche, Yang, Kim, and Richard (2007), JAMS

Consumer Disidentification

1. In general, I dislike the consumption culture of the (country)’s consumers.
2. It is good if they say something about (country)’s consumers.
3. I object to being seen as just another (country)’s consumer.
4. I always tend to not shop in the same places as the (countrymen).
5. Generally, I do not want to consume like the (countrymen).
6. I sometimes feel uncomfortable if people think I buy the same as the (countrymen) do.

Source: Josiassen (2011), JM

Ethnic Identification

1. I consider myself to be [ethnicity].
2. I feel very proud of my [ethnicity] cultural background.
3. I think of myself as [ethnicity] first and as [culture in which the person is being acculturated] second.
4. The [ethnicity] culture has the most positive impact on my life.
5. I would like to be known as “[ethnicity].”
6. I am still very attached to the [ethnicity] culture.

Source: Laroche, Yang, Kim, and Richard (2007), JAMS (adapted from Kim, Laroche, and Tomiuk [2001], IJIR)

National Disidentification

1. I would never say “we (countrymen)”.
2. I certainly do not want to see myself as (countrymen).
3. I always have the tendency to distance myself from the (countrymen).
4. Actually, I do not want anything to do with the (countrymen).
5. I never feel addressed when they are saying something about (country) and the (countrymen).

Source: Josiassen (2011), JM (adapted from Verkuyten and Yildiz [2007], PSPB)


1. In view of (country)’s moral and material superiority, it is only right that we should have the biggest say in deciding United Nations policy.
2. The first duty to every young (countryman) is to honor the national (country) history and heritage.
3. The important thing for (country)’s foreign aid program is to see to it that (country) gains a political advantage.
4. Other countries should try to make their government as much like ours as possible.
5. Generally, the more influence (country) has on other nations, the better off they are.
6. Foreign nations have done some very fine things but it takes (country) to do things in a big way.
7. It is important that (country) wins in international sporting competitions like the Olympics.
8. It is really not important that (country) be number one in whatever it does. (reversed)

Source: Kosterman and Feshbach (1989), PP


1. I love my country.
2. I am proud to be a (countryman).
3. In a sense, I am emotionally attached to my country and emotionally affected by its actions.
4. Although at times I may not agree with the government, my commitment to (country) always remains strong.
5. I feel a great pride in that land that is our (country).
6. It is not that important for me to serve my country. (reversed)
7. When I see the (country) flag flying I feel great.
8. The fact that I am a (nationality) is an important part of my identity.
9. It is not constructive for one to develop an emotional attachment to his/her country. (reversed)
10. In general, I have very little respect for the (country) people. (reversed) 
11. It bothers me to see children made to pledge allegiance to the flag or sing the national anthem or otherwise induced to adopt such strong patriotic attitudes. (reversed)
12. (Country) is really just an institution, big and powerful yes, but just an institution. (reversed)

Source: Kosterman and Feshbach (1989), PP

Product-related scales

Product Evaluation

1. Good/bad
2. Like/dislike
3. Useful/not useful
4. Desirable/undesirable
5. High-quality/low-quality
6. Favorable/unfavorable

Source: Mukherjee and Hoyer (2001), JCR (based on Peracchio and Tybout [1996], JCR)

Product Advantage

The product…

1. offers unique benefits to the customer – benefits not found in competitive products.
2. is higher quality than competitive products.
3. reduces customers’ costs.
4. is innovative – the first of its kind in the market.
5. is superior to competitive products in the eyes of the customer.
6. solves a problem the customer has with competitive products.

Source: Cooper and Kleinschmidt (1987), JPIM

Purchase Intention

1. It is very likely that I will buy (brand).
2. I will purchase (brand) the next time I need a (product).
3. I will definitely try (brand).
4. Suppose that a friend called you last night to get your advice in his/her search for a (product). Would you recommend him/her to buy a (product) from (brand)?

Source: Putrevu and Lord (1994), JA

Repurchase Intention

1. If you need a (product) in the future, how likely are you to try (brand)?
2. If you ever purchase a (product) again, how likely are you to buy it from (brand)?
3. How likely are you to revisit (retailer) for your shopping needs?

Source: Dutta, Biswas, and Grewal (2007), JAMS


Service Quality


1. Providing services as promised
2. Dependability in handling customers’ service problems
3. Performing services right the first time
4. Providing services at the promised time
5. Maintaining error-free records


6. Keeping customers informed about when services will be performed
7. Prompt service to customers
8. Willingness to help customers
9. Readiness to respond to customers’ requests


10. Employees who instill confidence in customers
11. Making customers feel safe in their transactions
12. Employees who are consistently courteous
13. Employees who have the knowledge to answer customer questions


14. Giving customers individual attention
15. Employees who deal with customers in a caring fashion
16. Having the customer’s best interest at heart
17. Employees who understand the needs to their customers
18. Convenient business hours


19. Modern equipment
20. Visually appealing facilities
21. Employees who have a neat, professional appearance
22. Visually appealing materials associated with the service

Source: Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1994), JR

Certainty of Product Performance

Based on the information provided about this product…

1. how certain are you as to how well the product would function? (not at all certain/very certain)
2. how well can you judge how the product would function? (hard for me to judge/easy for me to judge)
3. I feel the product would probably not work properly/work properly. 

Source: Weathers, Sharma, and Wood (2007), JR

Product Innovativeness

1. New to existing product
2. New to your customer
3. New to your market know-how
4. New to your technology know-how
5. New process technology in your industry
6. New product technology in your industry
7. First introduction into the market
8. Product explores new marketplace

Source: Lau, Tang, and Yam (2010), JPIM

Product Complexity

1. The offerings in this product category were difficult to understand.
2. The number of product attributes was overwhelming.
3. I felt that I would need to know a lot to take full advantage of the products offered.
4. I felt this kind of product was complicated in nature.

Source: Heitmann, Lehmann, and Herrmann (2007), JMR (adapted from Burnhamm Frels, and Mahajan [2003], JAMS)

Service Complexity

1. I would have to know a lot to take full advantage of the options/programs offered by service providers.
2. The offerings in this industry are difficult to understand.
3. A salesperson selling this kind of service needs to know a lot to do a good job.
4. This service is complicated in nature.

Source: Burnham, Frels, and Mahajan (2003), JAMS

Ease of Use

Using a [product] for [activity]…

1. will be complicated.
2. will take a lot of effort.
3. will require little work. (reversed)
4. will be slow.

Source: Dabholkar and Bagozzi (2002), JAMS (adapted from Dabholkar [1994], JCR)


Perceived Ownership

1. I feel like this is my [object].
2. I feel a very high degree of personal ownership of [the object].
3. I feel like I own this [object].

Source: Peck and Shu (2009), JCR (adapted from Pierce, Kostova, and Dirks [2001], AMR)

Relative Price

1. This brand is more expensive than the average brand in this category.
2. Compared to other brands, this brand is more expensive.

Source: Erdem, Swait, and Valenzuela (2006), JM

Ad-related scales

Ad Intrusiveness

1. Distracting
2. Disturbing
3. Forced
4. Interfering
5. Intrustive
6. Invasive
7. Obtrusive

Source: Edwards, Li, and Lee (2002), JA

Ad Trust

Information conveyed in advertising is…


1. Honest
2. Truthful
3. Credible
4. Reliable
5. Dependable
6. Accurate
7. Factual
8. Complete
9. Clear


10. Valuable
11. Good
12. Useful
13. Helps people make the best decisions


14. Likable
15. Enjoyable
16. Positive

Willingness to rely on

17. I am willing to rely on ad-conveyed information when making purchase-related decisions.
18. I am willing to make important purchase-related decisions based on ad-conveyed information.
19. I am willing to consider the ad-conveyed information when making purchase-related decisions.
20. I am willing to recommend the product or service that I have seen in ads to my friends or family.

Source: Soh, Reid, and King (2009), JA

Attitude toward the Ad

How would you best describe this advertisement?

1. Good/bad
2. Like/dislike
3. Interesting/boring
4. Appealing/unappealing

Source: Reardon, Miller, Foubert, Vida, and Rybina (2006), JIM

Ad Originality

This ad is…

1. unique.
2. imaginative.
3. out of the ordinary.
4. clever.
5. surprising.

Source: Haberland and Dacin (1992), ACR North American Advances

Ad Persuasiveness

1. (Does not) influence my opinion about (entity).
2. (Did not) change my attitude toward (entity).
3. The ad will influence my/other people’s (behavior) habits.

Source: Pham and Avnet (2004), JCR

Perceived Irritation

1. Irritating
2. Phony
3. Ridiculous
4. Stupid
5. Terrible

Source: Edwards, Li, and Lee (2002), JA

Skepticism toward Advertising

1. We can depend on getting the truth in most advertising.
2. Advertising’s aim is to inform the consumer.
3. I believe advertising is informative.
4. Advertising is generally truthful.
5. Advertising is a reliable source of information about the quality and performance of products.
6. Advertising is truth well told.
7. In general, advertising presents a true picture of the product being advertised.
8. I feel I’ve been accurately informed after viewing most advertisements.
9. Most advertising provides consumers with essential information.

Source: Obermiller and Spangenberg (1998), JCP

Source Credibility

1. Trustworthy/not trustworthy
2. Open-minded/not open-minded
3. Good/bad
4. Expert/not expert
5. Experienced/not experienced
6. Trained/untrained

Source: Grewal, Gotlieb, and Marmorstein (1994), JCR

Endorser Expertise

In my opinion, the endorser is…

1. an expert.
2. experienced.
3. knowledgeable.
4. qualified.
5. skilled.

Source: Ohanian (1990), JA

Endorser Trustworthiness

In my opinion, the endorser is…

1. dependable.
2. honest.
3. reliable.
4. sincere.
5. trustworthy.

Source: Ohanian (1990), JA

Endorser Attractiveness

In my opinion, the endorser is…

1. attractive.
2. classy.
3. handsome/beautiful.
4. elegant.
5. sexy.

Source: Ohanian (1990), JA

Endorser-Brand Congruence

1. When I think of endorser as an endorser, brand is one of the first brands I think about.
2. The idea of endorser endorsing brand represents a very good fit.
3. I think endorser is a relevant endorser for brand.
4. I think endorser is an appropriate endorser for brand.

Source: Sengupta, Goodstein, Boninger (1997), JCR

Further Readings

How to develop a measurement scale?

If no appropriate “off-the-shelf” measurement scale is available, developing a new scale might be your only option. Click here to learn more about the process of developing a new scale.


How to translate measurement scales?

Less than 20% of the world’s population speaks English. If you conduct international research,  you might need to translate existing measurement scales into local languages. Click here to read more about recommended procedures.

What's are reflective and formative measures?

Latent constructs can be operationalized in different ways. Measurement theorists distinguish between reflective and formative measurement models. Click here to learn more about different standpoints on this issue.

What Scales Are You Missing?